Journal of Islamic Theology <p><strong>Journal of Islamic Theology (JIT)</strong> is a double-blind peer-reviewed academic journal published by Socio-Cultural Awareness Human &amp; Resources Advancement Association (SAHARAA), Pakistan. Published semiannually (June and December), JIT is committed to publishing original research on all aspects of Islam. It particularly welcomes work of Islamic Theology, Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence, Islamic Ethics, Monotheistic Philosophy, Islamic Economics, Islamic Banking and Finance, Comparative Religion, Politics, Islamic Law, Anthropology, and History. JIT welcomes all the research papers having strong potential significance to Islam and Islamic Theology. For instance, each issue consists of articles and book reviews. It is open to authors around the world regardless of nationality. All published articles will be assigned DOI provided by Crossref.</p> en-US (Dr. Muhammad Aziz) (Dr. Muhammad Aziz) Mon, 30 Aug 2021 02:11:02 -0400 OJS 60 پاکستان میں ایکسٹرنل شریعہ آڈٹ کے نفاذ کے بعد اس کو درپیش چیلنجز کا ماہرین کی آراء کی روشنی میں عملی جائزہ <p>Providing its services in accordance with the principles of Shariah and maintaining the trust of stakeholders is essential for the existence of Islamic financial institutions. Islamic banks should be run under an integrated and regulated standard system called Shariah Governance Framework (SGF) The SBP, AAOFI and IFSB have proposed separate governance frameworks, However, the framework issued by the SBP is characterized by the fact that external Shariah audit is an important component of it which to ensure the independent and sovereign accountability of Islamic financial institutions. This means that Islamic financial institutions will no longer be content with internal sources such as internal Shariah audits and reviews to verify Shariah compliance, but will necessarily have to verify it with a third external party called an external Shariah audit. But after the mandatory implementation of this type of audit in Pakistan, there are many problems such as disinclination of experts, uniformity in the duration of audit and burden of responsibilities, non-standardization in the affairs of Islamic financial institutions, lack of precautionary measures taken by regulators, lack of curriculum and proper training, lack of detailed framework or format and lack of career counseling etc. This research paper covers these difficulties in the light of expert opinions.</p> Muhammad Ismail, Umer Saeed Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Islamic Theology Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 -0400 ہندومت،یہودیت اور اسلام میں تعددِ ازواج کا تصور <p><em>This article aims at dealing with the misconceptions regarding the polygamy of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). Many non-Muslim scholars like William Muir and Henry Lehmenn have badly criticized the marriages of Holy Prophet (PBUH). However, the marriages of Muhammad (PBUH) were meant to preach Islam in its true letter and spirit as the wives of Holy Prophet (PBUH) belonged to different tribes of Arabs. Thus, various Arab tribes were attracted towards Allah’s messenger and Islam because of these marriages.. Apart from this, a woman could better explain the Islamic teachings relating to women than a man could do. The wives of Holy prophet observed the private life of the Prophet and shared their observation with other Muslims. In a nutshell, these marriages were not meant for fulfilling human desires but for promotion of Islam. Similarly, polygamy finds a positive place in other religions of the world, like Hinduism and Judaism too. This article has elaborated these issues pertaining to the concept of polygamy in Islam. </em></p> Shihab Nimat, Dr Shabeer Ahmad Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Islamic Theology Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 -0400 قرآن کریم میں انسانی دل کو پتھر سے تشبیہ دینے پرمبنی سلطان بشیر محمود اور زغلول النجار کی سائنسی تاویلات کا تجزیاتی مطالعہ <p>The Holy QurÉn is the book of guidance for mankind till the Day of Resurrection. Therefore, some interpreters (<em>MufassirËn</em>) of QurÉn interpreted the Holy QurÉn according to the existing knowledge of that time. As a result of the scientific and industrial revolution of the last century, some scholars have proved the scientific miracle of the Holy QurÉn from these verses which are consistent with modern scientific research and theories. An example of such attempts is that of the renowned nuclear scientist Sultan Bashir Mehmood of Pakistan and Egypt's leading scientific Interpreter (Mufassir), Dr. ZaghËl al-NaajÉr, who’s geological Exegesis, aims to examine QurÉnic verses related to comparison the human heart to stone. Both these interpreters have further explained meaning of the QurÉnic words/verses in the light of scientific research, especially in the light of geology. Both of them prove the miraculous description of the Holy QurÉn regarding stone and human heart in their own ways. The given article analyses the interpretation and scientific exegesis of these two scholars which will be beneficial for those interested in the exegesis of Quran.</p> <p><strong>Key Words</strong>: Analytical Study, Exegesis, Sultan Bashir Mahmood, Zaghlool Al-NajjÉr, Human Heart, Stone.</p> Muhammad Saqib, Dr Rab Nawaz Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Islamic Theology Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 -0400 صوبائی خود مختاری کا تصور تعلیمات نبوی ﷺ کی روشنی میں <p>There are basically two fundamental concepts that are at the core of provincial autonomy. First is that the right of governance rests with the natives of the province while the second is that the province has autonomy over the province’s revenue. Both these concepts do not contradict with any rule of Islam. Conclusively, natives of the province have the primary right over the managerial possessions in the province. Mortal wise, they have the potential and aptitude. If the people of the province are having the ability and capability, then allocation of autonomy to members outside the province is against Seerah of the Holy Prophet صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم and also against the teachings of pious Caliphs. Also, natives of a province have the primary right over the revenue of the province. If the revenue of the province is in excess and fulfills the needs of the people of province, then shifting of province’s revenue to central government or somewhere else is allowed. Calling or naming provincial autonomy/ sovereignty as “IGNORANTISM PREJUDICE” is against Islamic teachings, against Sunnah of the Holy Prophet صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم and reflects unawareness of the teachings of pious Caliphs.</p> Muhammad Rashid Dehwar, Ulfat Haidar Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Islamic Theology Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 -0400 محمد علی جوہر کی شاعری میں اسلامی عناصر <p>Muhammad Ali Johar was born in 1878 in Rampur, India. He opened his eyes to Islamic civilization and culture where he spent his childhood under the Islamic way of life, later benefiting from Aligarh and Oxford. He was a fearless journalist, political activist, a brave general of the Nation of Islam as well as a poet with high taste. He has fully reflected his era in poetry. Where they seem to invite the nation of Islam to the path of action thanks to their message.Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar was a great freedom fighter who gave his life for India's freedom, particularly for Indian Muslims. During his struggle, he was imprisoned for years, but he never gave up hope and wrote editorials for his newspaper criticising the British government in occupied India.He also wrote poetry about Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W), expressing his admiration for him (S.A.W). He wrote some praises to Him in his poetry (S.A.W.). The poetry, he wrote, are of great poetic sensibility and impression because they bear valuable devotional sentiments, despite their small quantity. The devotional and islamic poetry of Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar is defined in this article.</p> Dr.Zeenat Bibi, Waqar Ali Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Islamic Theology Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 -0400 مغتنم الحصول فی علم الاصول میں علامہ حبیب اللہ قندہاری کے اسلوب کا تجزیاتی مطالعہ <p>The place which Islamic Jurisprudence in the Islamic sciences has, after <em>tafseer</em> and tradition of Prophet Muhammad (SAW), is not unknown to many. As the eternal rescue or everlasting torture in the hereafter depend upon life in this world which has been spent by an individual according or contrary to the Islamic rules and regulations. These regulations cannot be understood without the knowledge of jurisprudence. The evidence of the superiority of jurisprudence is evident from the Holy Quran itself, as evidenced from the verse: “And whoever is given wisdom is certainly given a lot of good”. The interpreters of Quran explain “wisdom” as the knowledge of Shariah. Similarly, there is a tradition of the Prophet (SAW) that: when Allah intends goodness with someone, he gives him the comprehension of Islam.&nbsp; However, it is difficult to find the solution of all human problems in the light of the Holly Quran and Sunnah only, without the tool of ijtihad. The knowledge of fiqh is required for interpretation and derivation of Islamic rulings.&nbsp; The manuscript <em>“Mughtanam ul hosul fi ilm ul usoul” </em>is about jurisprudence. The compiler of this manuscript is the great scholar <em>Habib Ullah </em>belonging to a highly educated family in Afghanistan. The manuscript is criticism and illustration<em> “Musllam” </em>Written by <em>Mohib</em> <em>Ullah</em>. He has kept in mind both the Hanafi and Shafi jurisprudential principles while writing it. The important bibliography are is Alburhan fi usoulil fiqh , Almahsoul, Almustasfa, Almankhoul, Altahreer, Altaqreer va altahbeer.</p> Dr.Asad Ullah, Dr Hifazt Ullah Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Islamic Theology Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 -0400 دورجدید میں اولاد کی جامع تعلیم و تربیت اور اس کے تقاضے،ایک تحقیقی وتجزیاتی مطالعہ <p><em>Children education, development and training have an impact on the parents’ life, the entire family and even the generations to come. Today, nations achieve success and development due to educated, trained and competent generations. So it is very important to care, educate and train our children. In Islam, it is the obligation of the parents to educate and train their children. In the Holy QurÉn, it has been commanded by Allah the almighty that: save yourself and your family from the fire of hell. It could be done by doing the job of education and tarbiya. Today, children education is not given its due importance. Basically, child development and best parenting should be acquired by the parents before marriage or soon after marriage. But usually it has been neglected or it depends on the parents' own perception or choices, and is not based on the principles of child development given by the Holy QurÉn and Sunnah or the modern day psychology In this article we have discussed this particular issue by shedding light on the importance of children education and development from the perspective of the Holy QurÉn, the Sunnah and modern fields of knowledge. We have also analyzed various domains and areas of child development. We hope this article will help the readers understand this topic and execute it properly</em></p> Dr.Yunus Khalid, Dr Naseem Akhter Copyright (c) 2020 The Journal of Islamic Theology Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 -0400 نسخ کی حقیقت اور تشریعی حیثیت کا تحقیقی مطالعہ <p>The general meaning of abrogation (Naskh) is to change a legal commandment/order. Such change takes place in all laws of the world. The rules of Shariah have similarly changed from time to time as per the need. However, the major difference between Shariah and other legal systems of the world is that changes and abrogation in the laws and decrees of the world are based on ignorance. Hence, sometimes the first decisions are proved wrong and sometimes that decision is valid in every respect, but with the passage of time, its importance and necessity disappears and change becomes necessary. But these two forms do not exist in the divine commandments because the commandments of Almighty Allah are free from ignorance. The abrogation of God's commandments takes place because Allah Almighty has already decided that this ruling is for such period of time and that too with the knowledge of how the conditions of this fixed period will be. Such abrogation is found in the Qur'an and Ahadith and it has been developed as a science by the Muslim scholars. In this article, an attempt has been made to clarify the essence of abrogation by digging into the definition, wisdom, types, cases, terms and order of abrogation.</p> Samiullah, Dr.Sahibzada Baz Muhammad Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Islamic Theology Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 -0400 الفتوى عبر العصور دراسة علمية و تحليلية <p>Fatwa has historical importance in the Muslim culture, so it is necessary for every Muslim to know about the History of Fatwa and of its introduction to Muslims? What was the situation of Fatwa in its initial era and now in modern age etc.? After study we find that the Holy Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم was the first one who started Fatwa and He was the first Mufti in Islam while the&nbsp; Companion of Holy Prophet asked Him about new and accidental circumstances, and the Holy Prophet guided them through Revelation or by Ijtihad, then after age of Holy Prophet in the Companion era they followed the Methodology of Holy Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم and Ijtihad in Jurisprudence was started for understanding the issues, modern incidents especially the issues &nbsp;in which there is no instruction in the Holy Quran and Sunnah. So the Holy Prophet trained His companions about Ijtihad and how to derive the issues from The Holy Quran and Sunnah because the circumstances and situations are changing from time to time and&nbsp; space to space while the text of Shariah is limited which can not refer to all issues so the Ijtihad is needed and required so the Jurists agreed on the permissibility of Ijtihad after Holy Prophet undoubtedly.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Then in the era of Tabeen they followed the Sahabah رضي الله عنهم and they gave Fatwa according to the rules and regulation appointed in the lifetime of Holy Prophet and Sahaba, in the era of tabeen the scholars were divided in two categories the first one known as Ahlul Hadith who were dealing with the narratives and narrators while the second one known as Ahlul Rai those who start dealing with Fiqh, Jurisprudence, Fatwa and deriving issues and Ijtihad. So I will discuss all these historical aspects in this paper.</p> Khisraul Mulk, Dr.Asad Ullah Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Islamic Theology Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 -0400 السر البلاغي في وجوه الخبر النحوي دراسة تحليلية نموذجية <p>There are eight forms of noun (Ḵabar); predicated to the principle noun. Each form is having different meaning as per context. All meanings rather they belong to the core text or its communicator’s approach or people, to whom it might indicate, are based on different syntactical formations, nominal and verbal cases. For instance, Arabs say: زيد المنطلق, some time they say: المنطلق زيد, and often they add one more pronoun to this complete nominal sentence as زيد هو المنطلق. All the sentences feel same in meaning but in fact their actual and designated meanings are different in each sentence from the next one. This study intends to elaborate all these basic differences based on their different structures along with proving, how and where all these structures are used. &nbsp;</p> Dr.Abdul Salam Bacha, Dr.Habibullah Khan Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Islamic Theology Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 -0400 Critical Analysis of Qualified Immunity Jurisprudence: A Theoretical Study of English Law and Shariah <p>The doctrine of qualified immunity, is globally practiced as a shield, has frequently been misused as a sword by law enforcement agencies against suspects that results in violation of citizens’ constitutional rights. Instead of protecting lives it promotes a culture of police violence in the name of public order and crime control that bitterly represent “shoot first think latter” approach. Pakistan is no exception as its ‘thana culture’ has been intact since the colonial era as a sign of public insecurity. Recently, police brutalities on international as well as national levels have compelled legislators, scholars and public alike either to alter or eliminate this lawless and ruthless prerogative that is a means of expanding the gulf of hatred between rulers and the ruled. Islamic polity cannot tolerate to encourage confiscation of human lives and dignity on the grounds of suspension rather it promotes doctrine of proportionality and moderate use of force when it is needed inevitably as it considers everyone accountable for his actions. This paper intends to find out theoretical basis of the doctrine in English law in the light of case law and important judicial precedents while comparing it with <em>Shariah</em> system of justice. Likewise, due place has been assigned to <em>Shariah</em> immunity-free justice system and some instances from the Prophetic and rightly-guided <em>khulafa’s</em> life with a view that the current qualified immunity doctrine may be codified in the light of Shariah principles of justice, equality and fairness.</p> Dr.Fazli Dayan, Muhammad Umar Khan Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Islamic Theology Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 -0400 Pakistani Education system and Reservations of religious Minorities <p class="FreeFormA" style="text-align: justify; line-height: 19.0pt;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif';">In the Pakistani educational system, specifically, schools, colleges, and universities official textbooks are used since the time period of president General </span><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman Italic','serif';">Ayub </span><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif';">Khan. After his era, President General </span><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman Italic','serif';">Zia ul Haq</span><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif';"> has approved an education policy in 1979. A program of Islamization was included in it. General Zia wanted to implement the Islamic Ideology through curriculum development for the thought and character building of the younger generation and to help them with a required conviction of representation in Pakistan. The Islamization of textbooks at every level picks up frequently the religious topics for adorning the curriculum. The overwhelming of the religious topics in textbooks such as the verses of the Holy Qur’an, biography of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), history of Islam, culture and society and students evaluation based on these topical ideas move the child to higher grades which shows that our national educational system presents national educational policy and curriculum make no distinction between academic and religious education. In that, it seeks for practicing Muslims and accepts the challenge of diversity to develop a democratic citizen. Pakistani educational system, curriculum, and textbooks have been facing a lot of criticism for incorporating discrimination towards religious minorities. Critics blame that Pakistani Muslims majority through this national educational policy has created such an environment on which Non-Muslims are considered very low-class citizens with lesser rights and privileges. They also are of the opinion that their (non-Muslims’) contributions towards society are ignored and their love for country is questionable. The main purpose of the Pakistani curriculum is to promote the monotheistic concept for this nation. Pakistan is an Islamic state in which its citizens have recognition as Muslims under the umbrella of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Which excludes Non-Muslim Students from the national identity as minorities. They cannot celebrate Pakistani’s religion, ethnic, diversity. In order to evaluate these criticism and to present the real picture of the issue to reader, we have attempted this research paper. Our research indicates that the above quoted criticism is not based on any practical or analytical proof rather it is just objection for the sake of objection and that Pakistani curriculum adjust non-Muslim students quite well. They are given as much choice and freedom in the syllabus as they need. </span></p> <p class="FreeFormAA" style="margin-bottom: 10.0pt; line-height: 19.0pt;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif';">&nbsp;</span></p> Dr Farhat Aziz, Dr.Syed Naeem Badshah Bukhari Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Islamic Theology Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 -0400