الفتوى عبر العصور دراسة علمية و تحليلية
Fatwa with the Passage of Time, Scientific and analytical Study
Fatwa has historical importance in the Muslim culture, so it is necessary for every Muslim to know about the History of Fatwa and of its introduction to Muslims? What was the situation of Fatwa in its initial era and now in modern age etc.? After study we find that the Holy Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم was the first one who started Fatwa and He was the first Mufti in Islam while the Companion of Holy Prophet asked Him about new and accidental circumstances, and the Holy Prophet guided them through Revelation or by Ijtihad, then after age of Holy Prophet in the Companion era they followed the Methodology of Holy Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم and Ijtihad in Jurisprudence was started for understanding the issues, modern incidents especially the issues in which there is no instruction in the Holy Quran and Sunnah. So the Holy Prophet trained His companions about Ijtihad and how to derive the issues from The Holy Quran and Sunnah because the circumstances and situations are changing from time to time and space to space while the text of Shariah is limited which can not refer to all issues so the Ijtihad is needed and required so the Jurists agreed on the permissibility of Ijtihad after Holy Prophet undoubtedly.
Then in the era of Tabeen they followed the Sahabah رضي الله عنهم and they gave Fatwa according to the rules and regulation appointed in the lifetime of Holy Prophet and Sahaba, in the era of tabeen the scholars were divided in two categories the first one known as Ahlul Hadith who were dealing with the narratives and narrators while the second one known as Ahlul Rai those who start dealing with Fiqh, Jurisprudence, Fatwa and deriving issues and Ijtihad. So I will discuss all these historical aspects in this paper.
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